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Scribal Abbreviations You are here: Scribal Abbreviations One of the most important skills which any student of medieval manuscripts and early printed books must develop is an understanding of the abbreviations which are common in these texts. Partly because of the expense of parchment, partly to achieve efficiencies in the labour of copying, perhaps partly to reduce the size of books which needed to be stored, scribes developed for Latin texts an elaborate system of abbreviating words and for replacing some especially common words or common, formulaic phrases with shorthand symbols. These abbreviations were such an established part of transcribing and reading Latin for so long that the system was carried over wholesale into early printed books, and fifteenth- and sixteenth-century printed Latin texts present the same challenges as medieval Latin manuscripts. Abbreviations are also used in copying vernacular texts, but to nowhere near the same elaborate complexity as the system developed for transcribing Latin. Furthermore, this system of writing Latin in abbreviated form had, by the end of the Middle Ages, been developing over the course of a millenium, which partly explains the degree of its elaboration. One of Cicero’s amanuenses, by the name of Tiro, invented a complete system of shorthand for recording Cicero’s speeches as he delivered them, and one of the Tironian “notae” his symbol for “et” continued in use throughout the Middle Ages more on this below. Traube claimed that he could date a manuscript based on the system of abbreviation alone; studying the abbreviations can also help in locating a manuscript. Cappelli offers a dictionary of about 14, marks, and even it is far from complete, for his work is almost exclusively based upon Italian manuscripts further, his dates are not reliable, especially for other parts of Europe , but the listing is convenient and helpful.

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Such systems, many having characters based on the letters of the alphabet, were used in ancient times; the shorthand of Tiro, Cicero’s amanuensis, was used for centuries. Modern systems date from , when Timothy Bright published his odd symbols for words; a French system was developed by Jacques Cossard in , a German one in John Willis published the Arte of Stenographie; there followed dozens of systems before , when the shorthand of Isaac Pitman Pitman, Sir Isaac, —97, English inventor of phonographic shorthand.

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Review of William L. Moore’s “The Detroit Manuscript: Moore’s lead article, in the second episode of Dale R. Broadhurst’s on-line book, “Spalding Saga,” disagrees in part with a theory put forth in my six-part Evangel article , “A Singular Discovery: Let me say at the outset that the purpose of this review is primarily to deny the words Mr. Moore has put in my mouth for the sake of his own theories.

Sad to say, Mr. Moore not only misinforms the reader as to my statements, but he also makes a muddle of the basic facts in the Detroit Manuscript affair. If he ever actually read my article, it is not readily apparent.

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Bareback blowjob to completion. Covered Blowjob means a condom was used. Sometimes abbreviated CG though this can be confused with the abbreviation for Call Girl as well.

This so called ‘hook up culture’ is now an established norm and the ultimate killer of emotional intimacy. There’s no avoiding it; traditional dating has undeniably taken a .

Letter forms and abbreviations Reading old handwriting is a challenge for most people. However, as we have seen, medieval scripts are usually written in a careful, regular hand. This means they can actually be easier to tackle than a personal scrawl of the nineteenth or twentieth century, if you have learnt a few basic hints and tips. On this page you will find lots of advice about unfamiliar letters, surprisingly-shaped letters, and abbreviations. If you want to know more, you can look at more comprehensive palaeography websites listed in the Further Reading page.

Recognising different letter forms Here are four examples of exactly the same Latin phrase which commonly occurs in title deeds. The task is made a bit harder because the scribes liked to abbreviate long or common words.

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Anno Domini The year numbering system used with Common Era notation was devised by the Christian monk Dionysius Exiguus in the year to replace the Era of Martyrs system, because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians. Bede also introduced the practice of dating years before what he supposed was the year of birth of Jesus, [15] and the practice of not using a year zero.

The term “Common Era” is traced back in English to its appearance as “Vulgar Era” [e] to distinguish dates on the Ecclesiastic calendar from those of the regnal year , the year of reign of a sovereign, typically used in national law. The first use of the Latin term vulgaris aerae [f] discovered so far was in a book by Johannes Kepler.

Thus, “the common era of the Jews”, [34] [35] “the common era of the Mahometans”, [36] “common era of the world”, [37] “the common era of the foundation of Rome”. Furthermore, several style guides now prefer or mandate its usage.

Purpose and Scope. This element identifies and records the date(s) that pertain to the creation, assembly, accumulation, and/or maintenance and use of the materials being described.

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Acronyms & Abbreviations

Texting and Sexting Is This Abuse? Next to talking one-on-one, texting is currently one of the most instant forms of communication. Keeping in touch with your significant other throughout the day can be thoughtful, but constant contact may be a sign of controlling behavior. Consider talking to your partner about giving you a little bit of space. Or send them to you?

You have the right to choose whether or not you want to engage in any kind of sexual activity, and that includes sexting with your partner.

The lost river and the Indus Civilisation. Shorthand. Published: AM – 30 Nov ; Dating zircons. Zircon is a stable mineral that is common to a wide range of rock types which makes it ideal as an indicator of sediment provenance. Zircon also contains levels of uranium and lead suitable for measuring geological ages and detrital.

Use the first day of the last menstrual period to calculate the due date. The quick way to do it in your head is to count backwards 3 months from the first day of the LMP, then add 7 days. The second trimester is from weeks until 28 weeks. The third trimester is from 28 weeks until delivery. The mother has had a previous Cesarean delivery but has now delivered vaginally. A cut made with surgical scissors from the opening of the vagina straight back toward the rectum just before the birth.

The cut is made from the vaginal opening at an angle more toward the leg than straight back. It used to be taught that it was better to cut an episiotomy than allow a tear, but in the last 25 years all the research in OB literature has shown that lacerations are usually not as large as episiotomies, heal faster than episiotomies, and are less painful than episiotomies. A first degree laceration 1E is minor and does not involve muscle. A second degree laceration 2E is equivalent to a median episiotomy, and does involve some muscle.

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Alternatives To Tinder 1. Does Tinder Work For Guys? The first question on the minds of plenty of guys is, “Does this thing even work!? Let’s take a closer look at Tinder’s purpose before we move on to some tips for getting matches: Is it for serious dating, or just for casual hook ups? The short answer is both:

Trying to decipher an online dating profile? Keep this list of acronyms handy and you’ll understand internet dating lingo in no time. What does cctv mean when texting.

Wed, 9 May, Over60 Prevent dementia by writing shorthand? Carmel Taylor is a 63 year old business teacher. She has worked as a stenographer and personal assistant prior to teaching. Her passion is shorthand and her hobbies are art deco, fashion and sewing. Carmel is a member of the Commercial Education Society of Australia. Prevent dementia by writing shorthand? Certainly, when I learnt shorthand nearly 50 years ago my aim was to master the skill, to use it professionally and then one day teach shorthand.

I had no idea that what I was doing was learning a skill which is excellent brain training and has now been identified as a method to assist dementia prevention. Members of the German Minden club believed that they were not just participating in a challenging past time — they also perceived that there were significant cognitive advantages associated with shorthand. Members, aged between 62 and 73 participated in exercises revising or learning shorthand on a weekly basis over several years.

On- going memory test results showed participants experienced either no memory deterioration or even improved memory, in spite of aging during the process. The Minden stenography club received community accolades for this work.

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